In this work we investigate the complexity of some combinatorial problems related to the *Simultaneous Embedding with Fixed Edges* (SEFE) and the PARTITIONED T-COHERENT $k$-PAGE BOOK EMBEDDING (PTBE-$k$) problems, which are known to be equivalent under certain conditions.

Given $k$ planar graphs on the same set of $n$ vertices, the SEFE problem asks to find a drawing of each graph on the same set of $n$ points in such a way that each edge that is common to more than one graph is represented by the same curve in the drawings of all such graphs.

Given a tree $T$ with $n$ leaves and a collection of $k$ edge-sets $E_i$ connecting pairs of leaves of $T$, the PTBE-$k$ problem asks to find an ordering $\mathcal{O}$ of the leaves of $T$ that is represented by $T$ such that the endvertices of two edges in any set $E_i$ do not alternate in $\mathcal{O}$.

The SEFE problem is $\mathcal{NP}$-complete for $k \geq 3$ even if the intersection graph is the same for each pair of graphs (*sunflower intersection*). We prove that this is true even when the intersection graph is a tree and all the input graphs are biconnected. This result implies the $\mathcal{NP}$-completeness of PTBE-$k$ for $k\geq 3$. However, we prove stronger results on this problem, namely that PTBE-$k$ remains $\mathcal{NP}$-complete for $k\geq 3$ even if (i) two of the input graphs $G_i = T \cup E_i $ are biconnected and $T$ is a caterpillar or if (ii) $T$ is a star. This latter setting is also known in the literature as *PARTITIONED $k$-PAGE BOOK EMBEDDING*. On the positive side, we provide a linear-time algorithm for PTBE-$k$ when all but one of the edge-sets induce connected graphs.

Finally, we prove that the problem of maximizing the number of edges that are drawn the same in a SEFE of two graphs (*optimization of SEFE*) is $\mathcal{NP}$-complete, even in several restricted settings.

Type

Publication

Theoretical Computer Science